TL;DR

Remember Autobiographical numbers? We will go on looking at constraints for it!

Let’s move on to a more fixed and theoretical one, i.e. that the last slot MUST be $0$. Code is in stage 2.

# A preliminary note

Let’s first note one thing:

if slot x contains the value $y$, then there MUST be at least $x \cdot y$ slots in the whole array.

Let’s see why, assuming that slot x contains value $y$:

• by definition, value $x$ is contained in exactly $y$ slots
• assume that z slot is one of these $y$ slots, it means that it contains value $x$
• as a consequence, there are exactly $x$ slots that contain value $z$
• because there are $y$ such slots, each bearing a different value, then we need to accomodate at least $x * y$ slots.

The condition is actually stronger than this, as a simple extension of the reasoning above and observing that each slot can only contain a single value:

$N = \sum_{i = 0}^{N-1} i \cdot v_i$

where $v_i$ represents the value contained in slot i.

# One more thing: N > 3

The autobiographical numbers puzzle can’t be solved for $N \leq 3$:

• $N = 0$ means that there is no slot.
• $N = 1$ means that there is only slot 0. It cannot contain $0$ because otherwise it would have to contain $1$ (there would be $1$ value $0$ in it, right?!?), and of course it cannot contain $1$ because otherwise it would not contain any $0$.
• $N = 2$ means that there are only slots 0 and 1. It’s easy to see that no value combination is possible:

• both slots can only contain $0$ or $1$, because of what we discussed in the previous section;
• slot 0 cannot contain $0$ for the same reasons as the previous case where $N = 1$, so it can only contain a $1$ (if anything);
• 10 is not a solution because there is one $1$ and the slot for 1 is $0$
• 11 is not a solution because there are two values $1$, but slot 1 contains a $1$.
• $N = 3$ is equally impossible. Allowed values for quantities are $0$, $1$ and $2$ because there are only slots 0, 1 and 2.
• We already established that slot 0 cannot contain $0$
• in the previous section, we saw that slot 2 cannot contain $2$ (it would mean that we need to have 4 slots, but we have only three)
• so we are left with:
10* not a solution, the value of slot 1 cannot be less than 1
11* not a solution, the value of slot 1 cannot be less than 2
120 not a solution, slot 1 should be 1
121 not a solution, there is no 0
2*0 not a solution, the value of slot 2 cannot be less than 1
201 not a solution, the value of slot 1 should be 1
211 not a solution, the value of slot 1 should be 2
22* not a solution, the value of slot 2 should be 2 but it can't


Hence, it only makes sense to consider cases where $N > 3$.

# Last slot MUST be 0?

Suppose you have $N$ slots, numbered from 0 to N-1 and let’s focus on the last slot. Remember also that $N > 3$.

Can it be greater than 1? Let’s remember the note in the previous section, and observe that $k \cdot (N - 1)$ is greater than $N$ (i.e. the total number of available slots!) for $k > 1$ and $N > 2$. So, for $N > 3$ (as we are considering) we MUST have that $k \leq 1$.

Our next question is: can slot N - 1 actually take value $1$? Well… no again. If it were true, then it would mean that the value $N - 1$ is written in some slot, which MUST be one of the first $N - 1$ slots (the last one is already occupied by the $1$ and we already know that $N - 1 > 1$).

We know that $N - 1$ cannot be written in any slot from 2 on, again because of the constraints discussed in the previous section. Hence, it could only be either slot 0 or slot 1.

Can it be slot 0? No it can’t, because we would need to accomodate $N - 1$ slots with $0$ inside, but we only have $N - 2$ left (remember that slot 0 is occupied by value $N - 1$, and slot N - 1 is occuped by value $1$, so they cannot accomodate a $0$ at the same time).

Can it be slot 1? No again, because if we take the equation in the previous section, we would end up with at least $1 \cdot (N - 1) + (N - 1) \cdot 1 = 2(N - 1) > N$ needed slots, which is impossible.

Let’s visualize this latter case explicitly:

  0   1   2   3
+---+---+---+---+
| 1 | 3 | 1 | 1 |
+---+---+---+---+

...

0   1     2   3   4        N-2 N-1
+---+-----+---+---+---+ ... +---+---+
| 1 | N-1 | 1 | 1 | 1 |     | 1 | 1 |
+---+-----+---+---+---+ ... +---+---+


All slots show either $1$ or $N - 1$, and other values are absent. Which is a violation of the main constraint about the game rule: value $0$ is supposed to appear once (there is a $1$ in slot 0) but it does not appear at all.

Hence, the very last value in a suitable solution MUST be $0$.

# Coding

Now that we know it MUST be $0$, it’s easy to code it - we will do this directly upon initialization.

 1 sub autobiographical_numbers ($n) { 2 my$solution = [
3       map {
4          +{map { $_ => 1 } 0 ..$n - 2}  # "n-1" is always 0
5       } 1 .. $n -1 6 ]; 7 push$solution->@*, {0 => 1};         # "n-1" is always 0
8    my @constraints = map { main->can('constraint_' . $_) } 9 qw< basic >; 10 my$state = solve_by_constraints(
11       constraints    => \@constraints,
12       is_done        => \&is_done,
13       search_factory => \&explore,
14       start          => {solution => $solution}, 15 logger => ($ENV{VERBOSE} ? \&printout : undef),
16    );
17 } ## end sub autobiographical_numbers ($n)  There are two places where this insight is useful: • the obvious one is that… the last slot only allows for$0$, which is what line 7 is about; • then, we can also get rid of value$N-1$from all other slots (line 4, the range goes up to$N-2$for this reason). # Is it of help? Let’s see how it goes: $ time ./run.sh 01-basic/ 30
solution => [26,2,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0]

real	0m6.449s
user	0m6.404s
sys	0m0.032s

\$ time ./run.sh 02-last-is-zero/ 30
solution => [26,2,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0]

real	0m5.679s
user	0m5.648s
sys	0m0.012s