OpenSSH Server: ChrootDirectory


Some notes on the ChrootDirectory directive for OpenSSH.

From the documentation in my system:

Specifies the pathname of a directory to chroot(2) to after authentication. At session startup sshd(8) checks that all com‐ ponents of the pathname are root-owned directories which are not writable by any other user or group.

This can be a bit annyoing, because I was expecting to be able and force a user to be allowed into a writeable directory, expecially because my main target is to pair this with an SFTP-only setup (see Setting up an SFTP server for the details).

Alas, this is not possible, to a common workaround is to create a writeable directory inside the directory indicated with ChrootDirectory and let the user write things there.

After the chroot, sshd(8) changes the working directory to the user’s home directory.

I can only guess that after the chroot there’s still a reference to the old filesystem view, which is a leak. So sshd does the directory change to be sure to land inside the new filesystem view.

Arguments to ChrootDirectory accept the tokens described in the TOKENS section.

This means that it’s possible to use a few % placeholder to make the path a bit more generic than a single directory. As an example, %u is replaced by the username and %h by the path to their home directory (even though this would have the restriction describe above, so it’s usually not a viable option). Should we need a literal % character, it’s %%.

The ChrootDirectory must contain the necessary files and directories to support the user’s session. For an interactive session this requires at least a shell, typically sh(1), and basic /dev nodes such as null(4), zero(4), stdin(4), stdout(4), stderr(4), and tty(4) devices.

After the chroot, the filesystem view provided to users is restricted to that directory only, hence they will generally lack a lot of the things that would be needed to login with a functional shell. Note that adding the shell might imply the need to also provide the shared libraries it relies upon, unless of course it’s compiled statically.

For file transfer sessions using SFTP no additional configuration of the environment is necessary if the in-process sftp-server is used, though sessions which use logging may require /dev/log inside the chroot directory on some operating systems (see sftp-server(8) for details).

Apart from the indication about logging, it’s worth remembering that the in-process sftp-server can be enabled with the following configuration:

Subsystem sftp internal-sftp

Otherwise… it would either not be configured, or point to an external program that MUST be found in the new chroot-ed filesystem (this is pretty much the same situation discussed for the shell above).

For safety, it is very important that the directory hierarchy be prevented from modification by other processes on the system (especially those outside the jail). Misconfiguration can lead to unsafe environments which sshd(8) cannot detect.

While I understand the general gist of this warning (e.g. someone might bind-mount stuff inside and open the flood gates), I’m not sure I understand the danger that might come if an external process decides to add some files in that directory. Any light in this direction would be much appreciated!

The default is none, indicating not to chroot(2).

This pretty much seals the documentation, and makes sense as a default because anything else would mean that the administrator has to ensure the proper setup of the filesystem, which is usually not needed in the general case.

I guess it’s everything… future me!

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