TL;DR

On with TASK #2 from The Weekly Challenge #220. Enjoy!

# The challenge

You are given an array of integers, @ints.

An array is squareful if the sum of every pair of adjacent elements is a perfect square.

Write a script to find all the permutations of the given array that are squareful.

Example 1:

Input: @ints = (1, 17, 8)
Output: (1, 8, 17), (17, 8, 1)

(1, 8, 17) since 1 + 8 => 9, a perfect square and also 8 + 17 => 25 is perfect square too.
(17, 8, 1) since 17 + 8 => 25, a perfect square and also 8 + 1 => 9 is perfect square too.


Example 2:

Input: @ints = (2, 2, 2)
Output: (2, 2, 2)

There is only one permutation possible.


# The questions

I think that the challenge is concise yet clear and complete. I’d probably ask if there’s any limit on the input values, both in terms of integer values and how many elements might end up in the array:

• knowing the domain can be important to figure out whether big number libraries are needed or not;
• the amount of elements directly influences the solution and how much time we should devote to it!

# The solution

We’ll take the bait and assume that we’re going to address only very short input arrays. You know, so short that the factorial of this amount is still manageable.

If this is the case, let’s just go down the brute force path and evaluate every. single. permutation.

In Perl, I’ll borrow a function from past me (thanks!) to calculate all permutations:

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use v5.24;
use warnings;
use experimental 'signatures';
use JSON::PP;

my $sit = squareful_iterator(@ARGV); while (my$squareful = $sit->()) { say encode_json($squareful) =~ tr{[]}{()}r;
}

sub squareful_iterator (@ints) {
return sub { return undef } if @ints < 2;
my $it = permutations_iterator(items => \@ints); my %seen; return sub { while (my$candidate = $it->()) { next unless is_squareful($candidate);
return $candidate unless$seen{join ',', $candidate->@*}++; } return; }; } sub is_squareful ($list) {
for my $i (1 ..$list->$#*) { my$sum = $list->[$i - 1] + $list->[$i];
return 0 if int(sqrt($sum)) ** 2 !=$sum;
}
return 1;
}

sub permutations_iterator {
my %args = (@_ && ref($_)) ? %{$_} : @_;
my $items =$args{items} || die "invalid or missing parameter 'items'";
my $filter =$args{filter} || sub { wantarray ? @_ : [@_] };
my @indexes = 0 .. $#$items;
my @stack = (0) x @indexes;
my $sp = undef; return sub { if (! defined$sp) { $sp = 0 } else { while ($sp < @indexes) {
if ($stack[$sp] < $sp) { my$other = $sp % 2 ?$stack[$sp] : 0; @indexes[$sp, $other] = @indexes[$other, $sp];$stack[$sp]++;$sp = 0;
last;
}
else {
$stack[$sp++] = 0;
}
}
}
return $filter->(@{$items}[@indexes]) if $sp < @indexes; return; } }  Yep, that’s right: no attempt at optimizing anything. Hey! I’m being honest about it… I know that with some knowledge about how the permutations are calculated, we might at least cut the calculations in half (every solution also admits its reverse as a solution, right?), but no… we’ll just stop here because we have other work to do, right? Like… coding the Raku solution: #!/usr/bin/env raku use v6; sub MAIN (*@ints) { .say for squarefuls(@ints); } sub squarefuls (@ints) { my %seen; gather for @ints.permutations ->$candidate {
next unless is-squareful($candidate); take$candidate unless %seen{$candidate.join(',')}++; } } sub is-squareful ($list) {
for 1 .. $list.end ->$i {
my $sum =$list[$i - 1] +$list[$i]; return False if$sum.sqrt.Int² != \$sum;
}
return True;
}


I do remember when I was a child and how frustrating it was to be given a present that needed batteries and they where not there. So yes, I love Raku for coming with every possible voltage and amperage.

Well, mostly.

Stay safe folks!

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