# ETOOBUSY đźš€ minimal blogging for the impatient

# PWC210 - Number Collision

**TL;DR**

On with TASK #2 from The Weekly Challenge #210. Enjoy!

# The challenge

You are given an array of integers which can move in right direction if it is positive and left direction when negative. If two numbers collide then the smaller one will explode. And if both are same then they both explode. We take the absolute value in consideration when comparing.

All numbers move at the same speed, therefore any 2 numbers moving in the same direction will never collide.

Write a script to find out who survives the collision.

Example 1:`Input: @list = (2, 3, -1) Output: (2, 3) The numbers 3 and -1 collide and -1 explodes in the end. So we are left with (2, 3).`

Example 2:`Input: @list = (3, 2, -4) Output: (-4) The numbers 2 and -4 collide and 2 explodes in the end. That gives us (3, -4). Now the numbers 3 and -4 collide and 3 explodes. Finally we are left with -4.`

Example 3:`Input: @list = (1, -1) Output: () The numbers 1 and -1 both collide and explode. Nothing left in the end.`

# The questions

With the disclaimer that I never did an interview as a programmer or to a programmer, I think this challenge would make a fantastic interview question.

There are the usual suspect: anything more about the domain, e.g. upper and lower limits? Any hint about the typical sizes for the input lists? Should the output list be provided with just the surviving integers, or should it also preserve the order of these survivors to be the same as they initially appear?

The real gold nugget, though, is what happens to 0. One might opine that the input integers are explicitly said to be able to move, which seems to exclude 0; I still think that itâ€™s good to iron this out.

In lack of this, we might assume that it was just a willing miss by the interviewer, to see our reaction and how we decide to address it. As an example, if 0 is indeed allowed (which we can assume, just as a diversion/extension of the challenge):

- does it move or does it stand still? Letâ€™s assume that it stands still
- what happens if it gets a collision from
*both*left and right?

Admittedly, the answer to the last question is not really necessary for the purposes of the challenge. I would say that the step should resolve with a three-numbers collision where one or zero integers survive, but the challenge is about what happens in the long run so it does not really care if the two integers on the two sides of a 0 fight immediately or in the later step.

# The solution

Iâ€™m eager to see how enlightened minds like E. Choroba or Prof. W. Luis MochĂˇn (out of the pack of many) solve this in $O(1)$. Well, most probably $O(n)$ or $O(n \cdot log(n))$. Honestly, I couldnâ€™t think anything better than a $O(n^2)$ solution which simulates round after round until everything settles down.

Each simulation step does this:

- take apart the â€śsurely safeâ€ť items from the list. These are negative items appearing on the left side, or positive items appearing on the right side; they are safe because they are not going to have any collision.
- if there are still â€śpotentially unsafeâ€ť items, run a step of movement upon them. If nothing changes weâ€™re done, otherwise we resolve collisions and do another iteration.

The collision resolution approach that I took isâ€¦ sub-optimal. It analyzes what happens to each integer individually, hence each collision is always evaluated twice (one for each participating integer). Itâ€™s simple and it worksâ€¦ Iâ€™d like to keep it like this for a change.

Perl:

```
#!/usr/bin/env perl
use v5.24;
use warnings;
use experimental 'signatures';
my @nc = number_collision(@ARGV);
{ local $" = ', '; say "(@nc)" }
sub number_collision (@list) {
my (@pre, @post); # safe items on the left and on the right
while ('necessary') {
push @pre, shift @list while @list && $list[0] < 0;
unshift @post, pop @list while @list && $list[-1] > 0;
last if scalar(@list) == 0;
my @mid;
INDEX:
for my $i (0 .. $#list) {
my $item = $list[$i];
if ($item > 0) { # try to move right
push @mid, $item if $item + $list[$i + 1] > 0;
}
elsif ($item < 0) { # try to move left
push @mid, $item if $item + $list[$i - 1] < 0;
}
else { # try to stay put
my $safe_left = ($i == 0) || ($list[$i - 1] <= 0);
my $safe_right = ($i == $#list) || ($list[$i + 1] >= 0);
push @mid, 0 if $safe_left && $safe_right;
}
}
# stop simulation if nothing changed in this pass
last if scalar(@list) == scalar(@mid);
# go to next iteration with surviving items in the middle
@list = @mid;
}
return (@pre, @list, @post)
}
```

Raku:

```
#!/usr/bin/env raku
use v6;
sub MAIN (*@args) { put '(', number-collision(@args).join(', '), ')' }
sub number-collision (@list is copy) {
my (@pre, @post); # safe items on the left and on the right
loop {
@pre.push: @list.shift while @list && @list[0] < 0;
@post.unshift: @list.pop while @list && @list[*-1] > 0;
last if @list == 0;
my @mid;
INDEX:
for ^@list -> $i {
my $item = @list[$i];
if $item > 0 { # try to move right
@mid.push: $item if $item + @list[$i + 1] > 0;
}
elsif $item < 0 { # try to move left
@mid.push: $item if $item + @list[$i - 1] < 0;
}
else { # try to stay put
my $safe-left = ($i == 0) || (@list[$i - 1] <= 0);
my $safe-right = ($i == @list.end) || (@list[$i + 1] >= 0);
@mid.push: 0 if $safe-left && $safe-right;
}
}
# stop simulation if nothing changed in this pass
last if @list.elems == @mid.elems;
# go to next iteration with surviving items in the middle
@list = @mid;
}
return (@pre, @list, @post).flat.Array;
}
```

Stay safe and avoid collisions!

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