TL;DR

On with TASK #2 from The Weekly Challenge #175. Enjoy!

# The challenge

Write a script to generate first 20 Perfect Totient Numbers. Please checkout wikipedia page for more informations.

Output

3, 9, 15, 27, 39, 81, 111, 183, 243, 255, 327, 363, 471, 729,
2187, 2199, 3063, 4359, 4375, 5571


# The questions

I guess the reference to the Wikipedia page says it all. Although… I can’t help noting that both $0$ and $1$ might somehow qualify. Anyway.

# The solution

This is finally the time that I complicate bread. The gist of this challenge is to code some is_perfect_totient_number, which in turn begs for implementing some totient_supersum that calculates the iterative sum of totient values.

use ntheory 'euler_phi';
sub is_perfect_totient_number ($n) {$n == totient_supersum($n) } sub totient_supersum ($n) {
state $cache = {0 => 0, 1 => 1, 2 => 1}; # first "recurse" up to the point where we have something # in cache my @stack =$n;
push @stack, $n = euler_phi($n) while ! exists $cache->{$n};

# then go back down to calculate all new needed values
$n = pop @stack; my$pred = $cache->{$n};
while (@stack) {
($n, my$phi) = (pop(@stack), $n);$pred = $cache->{$n} = $phi +$pred;
}

# whatever is left is what we were after in the first place
return $pred; }  And now we have our usual brute forcing the way up to the needed number of items. Well, this is it. This must end now. So, instead of this: # WARNING: UNTESTED CODE my$n = shift // 20;
my $candidate = 2; while ($n > 0) {
if (is_perfect_totient_number($candidate)) { say$candidate;
--$n; } ++$candidate;
}


I decided to go for this:

my $n_items = shift // 20; say for BruteCheck::brutechecker( iterator => BruteCheck::int_iterator('2..'), ender => BruteCheck::max_size($n_items),
checker  => sub ($n) { return totient_supersum($n) == $n }, ); # ... package BruteCheck; sub max_size ($n) { sub ($aref) {$aref->@* >= $n } } sub int_iterator ($spec) {
my ($start,$stop, $step) =$spec =~ m{
\A
([1-9]\d*|0|)
\.\.
([1-9]\d*|0|)
(?: / (-?[1-9]\d*))?
\z
}mxs;
$start ||= 0;$step  ||= 1;

my $i =$start;
return sub {
return
if length($stop) && (($step > 0 && $i >$stop) || ($step < 0 &&$i < $stop)); my$retval = $i;$i += $step; return$retval;
};
} ## end sub int_iterator ($spec) sub brutechecker (%args) { my ($checker, $iterator,$ender) = @args{qw< checker iterator ender >};
$iterator //= int_iterator('..');$ender //= sub { 0 };
my @retval;
while (!$ender->(\@retval) && defined(my$candidate = $iterator->())) { push @retval,$candidate if $checker->($candidate);
}
return @retval;
} ## end sub brutechecker (%args)


So we get:

• a wonderfully overkill iterator generator which parses strings like .. (from 0 to infinity), 2.. (from 2 up to infinity), 2..10 (from 2 to 10), 2..10/2 (two by two), …
• a definitely overkill wrapper for checking when an array has a specific size, or more;
• a brute force generalization that will surely fail me the next time I need it.

Anyway, the Raku alternative made me come to compromises. I gave up on the parsing of a string and went for an explicit expression for the start/stop/step values.

#!/usr/bin/env raku
use v6;

class IntIterator { ... }
class BruteCheck { ... }
sub MAIN (Int:D $n where * > 0 = 20) {$*OUT.out-buffer = False;
.put for BruteCheck.new(
iterator => IntIterator.new(start => 2),
ender    => -> @x { @x.elems == $n }, checker => sub ($n) { $n == totient-supersum($n) },
).run();
}

sub totient-supersum ($n is copy) { state %cache = <0 0 1 1 2 1>; my @stack =$n,;
@stack.push($n = euler-phi($n)) while %cache{$n}:!exists;$n = @stack.pop;
my $pred = %cache{$n};
while @stack {
($n, my$phi) = @stack.pop, $n;$pred = %cache{$n} =$phi + $pred; } return$pred;
}

sub euler-phi ($n) { state %cache = <0 0 1 1 2 1>; return %cache{$n} //= (1 ..^ $n).grep({($_ gcd $n) == 1}).elems; } class IntIterator { has$.start is readonly is built = 0;
has $.stop is readonly is built = Inf; has$.step is readonly is built = 1;
has $!current; submethod TWEAK() {$!current = $!start;$!stop = -Inf if $!stop == Inf &&$!step < 0;
}
method pull-one {
return Nil
if ($!step > 0 &&$!current > $!stop) || ($!step < 0 && $!current <$!stop);
my $retval =$!current;
$!current +=$!step;
return $retval; } }; class BruteCheck { has &.checker; has &.ender is built = sub (@r) { False }; has$.iterator is built = IntIterator.new();
method run {
my @rval;
while (! &!ender(@rval) && defined(my $c =$!iterator.pull-one())) {
@rval.push: $c if &!checker($c);
}
return @rval;
}
}


And with all these unneeded lines of code… it’s time to say goodbye until next time!