TL;DR

On with TASK #2 from The Weekly Challenge #169. Enjoy!

# The challenge

Write a script to generate first 20 Achilles Numbers. Please checkout wikipedia for more information.

An Achilles number is a number that is powerful but imperfect (not a perfect power). Named after Achilles, a hero of the Trojan war, who was also powerful but imperfect.

A positive integer n is a powerful number if, for every prime factor p of n, p^2 is also a divisor.

A number is a perfect power if it has any integer roots (square root, cube root, etc.).

For example 36 factors to (2, 2, 3, 3) - every prime factor (2, 3) also has its square as a divisor (4, 9). But 36 has an integer square root, 6, so the number is a perfect power.

But 72 factors to (2, 2, 2, 3, 3); it similarly has 4 and 9 as divisors, but it has no integer roots. This is an Achilles number.

Output

72, 108,  200,  288,  392,  432,  500,  648,  675,  800,  864, 968, 972, 1125, 1152, 1323, 1352, 1372, 1568, 1800


# The questions

I’m very hurried these days so a meta-question only: can we peek at the solution? I admit that I did indeed peek, discovered that it was not involving big numbers, and resolved to use a very, very lazy approach!

# The solution

As customary, for the second half of the weekly challenge I’ll start with Perl. I’ve alrady told that I’m in a hurry so my soluition has spaces for improvements. It works, anyway.

The idea is to check the powers of each prime that dives the target number:

• it must be greater than one
• the overall greatest common divisor across all powers must be 1, i.e. these powers are co-primes (otherwise there would be an integer root).

So here we are, again with the help of ntheory:

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use v5.24;
use warnings;
use experimental 'signatures';
no warnings 'experimental::signatures';

use ntheory qw< factor_exp >;

my $count = shift // 20; my @achilles; my$candidate = 72;
while (@achilles < $count) { push @achilles,$candidate if is_achilles($candidate); ++$candidate;
}
say join ', ', @achilles;

sub is_achilles ($n) { my$gcd;
for my $pair (factor_exp($n)) {
my $power =$pair->;
return 0 if $power == 1;$gcd = $gcd ? gcd($gcd, $power) :$power;
}
return $gcd == 1; } sub gcd ($A, $B) { ($A, $B) = ($B % $A,$A) while $A; return$B }


The translation to Raku is done in a hurry as well, reusing the factorization function from here and implementing the aggregation function factor_exp to give the same result as the one in ntheory:

#!/usr/bin/env raku
use v6;
sub MAIN (Int:D $count where * > 0 = 20) { my @achilles; my$candidate = 72;
while @achilles < $count { @achilles.push:$candidate if is-achilles($candidate); ++$candidate;
}
put @achilles.join(', ');
}

sub is-achilles ($n) { my$gcd;
for factor_exp($n) -> ($p, $power) { return False if$power == 1;
$gcd =$gcd ?? gcd($gcd,$power) !! $power; } return$gcd == 1;
}

sub gcd ($A is copy,$B is copy) {
($A,$B) = ($B %$A, $A) while$A;
return $B; } sub factor_exp (Int$n) {
my @retval = [0, 0],;
for factors($n) ->$p {
if $p == @retval[*-1] { @retval[*-1]++ } else { @retval.push: [$p, 1] }
}
@retval.shift;
return @retval;
}

sub factors (Int $remainder is copy) { return 1 if$remainder <= 1;
state @primes = 2, 3, 5, -> $n is copy { repeat {$n += 2 } until $n %% none @primes ... {$_ * $_ >=$n }
$n; } ... *; gather for @primes ->$factor {
if $factor *$factor > $remainder { take$remainder if $remainder > 1; last; } # How many times can we divide by this prime? while$remainder %% $factor { take$factor;
last if ($remainder div=$factor) === 1;
}
}
}


I know that there must be a better solution… but not today!

Stay safe!

Comments? Octodon, , GitHub, Reddit, or drop me a line!