PWC163 - Sum Bitwise Operator


Here we are with TASK #1 from The Weekly Challenge #163. Enjoy!

The challenge

You are given list positive numbers, @n.

Write script to calculate the sum of bitwise & operator for all unique pairs.

Example 1

Input: @n = (1, 2, 3)
Output: 3

Since (1 & 2) + (2 & 3) + (1 & 3) => 0 + 2 + 1 =>  3.

Example 2

Input: @n = (2, 3, 4)
Output: 2

Since (2 & 3) + (2 & 4) + (3 & 4) => 2 + 0 + 0 =>  2.

The questions

Oh well this is Christmas in May.

That unique pair thing lends itself to soooo many interpretations that I’m ashamed of myself:

  • sum only pairs that are truly unique, crossing out those that repeat?
  • find all pairs, keep one instance of each and calculate?
  • are pairs ordered, i.e. is $(1, 2)$ the same as $(2, 1)$ or not?
  • sum all possible pairs formed by taking an element and another element on the right of the first one?

I’ll stick to the last one, i.e.:

  • take (removing) the first item in @n and form one “unique” pair with all elements in the rest of @n
  • repeat with the rest of @n.

What if @n is empty? I’ll assume 0 is OK.

What if it only contains one element? I’ll assume that element is the answer, although 0 would be a perfectly sensible alternative because… there’s no pair!

The solution

OK, having chosen the most boring of the alternative interpretations, I’ll try to spice things up a bit in Raku by trying to do everything through recursion in good ol’ functional style. It’s a bit stretched but it works:

#!/usr/bin/env raku
use v6;
sub MAIN (*@n) { put sb(|@n) }

multi sub sb  ()            { 0                         }
multi sub sb  ($n)          { $n                        }
multi sub sb  ($n, $m)      { $n +& $m                  }
multi sub sb  ($n, *@r)     { sbf($n, |@r) + sb(|@r)    }
multi sub sbf ($n, $m)      { sb($n, $m)                }
multi sub sbf ($n, $m, *@r) { sb($n, $m) + sbf($n, |@r) }

To keep things regular I adopted an abbreviation for the main function, i.e. sb. Cases for 0, 1, and 2 elements are “special” end-cases, and the last one is the recursive one.

Function sbf has two alternatives too, and is needed to iterate the first element with all the rest of the array. In this case it always gets at least two elements, so we have to cope with two cases only with multi.

After this excercise in style, it’s time for good ol’ dependable Perl with a no-frills iterative implementation:

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use v5.24;
use warnings;
use experimental 'signatures';
no warnings 'experimental::signatures';

say sum_bitwise(@ARGV);

sub sum_bitwise (@n) {
   return 0     if @n == 0;
   return $n[0] if @n == 1;
   my $retval = 0;
   for my $i (0 .. $#n - 1) {
      $retval += $n[$i] & $n[$_] for $i + 1 .. $#n;
   return $retval;

Who needs multi when we have post-conditions?

Who needs to worry about tail-recursion optimization when we have for?

Forget about that macacademia functional stuff, we’re here to do stuff and get the job done. Guh!

Whatever your style, stay safe please!

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