# ETOOBUSY đźš€ minimal blogging for the impatient

# PWC113 - Represent Integer

**TL;DR**

Here we are with TASK #1 from the Perl Weekly Challenge #113. Enjoy!

# The challenge

You are given a positive integer

`$N`

and a digit`$D`

.Write a script to check if

`$N`

can be represented as a sum of positive integers having`$D`

at least once. If check passes print 1 otherwise 0.*Example**

`Input: $N = 25, $D = 7 Output: 0 as there are 2 numbers between 1 and 25 having the digit 7 i.e. 7 and 17. If we add up both we don't get 25. Input: $N = 24, $D = 7 Output: 1`

# The questions

Well, letâ€™s not make too many questions here, because thereâ€™s a little
loopholeâ€¦ OK, letâ€™s just say that we assume that `14`

qualifies as
being represented for digit `7`

because you get it when you sum `7`

twice. Makes sense?

# The solution

There are some special conditions where we know the answer beforehand:

- values of
`$N`

less than digit`$D`

do not comply; - values that have digit
`$D`

inside do comply; - values where
`$N >= 10 * $D`

always comply.

Waitâ€¦ what?!?

If a value $N$ is such that $N > 10 \cdot D$, it means that it can be expressed as the following sum:

\[N = 10 \cdot D + K\]Now we can consider that $K$ can be expressed in terms of its integer division by $D$ like follows:

\[K = q \cdot D + r\]with $0 \leq r < D \leq 9$. Hence, we can write $N$ as follows:

\[N = 10 \cdot D + q \cdot D + r \\ N = q \cdot D + (10 \cdot D + r)\]Now, $q \cdot D$ is the same as summing $D$ to itself $q$ times, so it can be represented in terms of â€śsum of positive integers having $D$ at least onceâ€ť.

On the other hand, considering the restrictions on $D$ and $r$, the value $10 \cdot D + r$ is the two-digits number where the first digit is $D$ and the last digit is $r$, hence it contains digit $D$ and complies with the rule.

As a result, $N$ is the sum of two compliant addentds and can thus be decomposed according to the rules.

For all the rest we will rely on *brute force*, because the rules
expressed above allow us to put a hard limit to the search space:

```
#!/usr/bin/env perl
use 5.024;
use warnings;
use experimental qw< postderef signatures >;
no warnings qw< experimental::postderef experimental::signatures >;
sub represent_integer ($n, $d) {
return 0 if $n < $d; # no point in checking this
return 1 if $n >= 10 * $d; # q * d + (10 * d + r) (0 <= r < 9)
return 1 if $n =~ m{$d}mxs; # match one digit
$n -= $d;
while ($n > 0) {
return 1 if represent_integer($n, $d);
$n -= 10;
}
return 0;
}
my $N = shift || 25;
my $D = shift || 7;
say represent_integer($N, $D) ? 1 : 0;
```

This recursive implementation will not be too much taxingâ€¦ so itâ€™s OK for this challenge.

Cheers!