One of those times where you discover a bug in some important software… and also discover that it has been solved.

I was interested into how to deal with writing arbitrary binary data into a file in a POSIX-compliant shell, and it occurred to me that [Rich’s sh (POSIX shell) tricks][] might… do the trick.

It does, indeed.

The adequately named section Writing bytes to stdout by numeric value gives us this little gem:

writebytes () { printf %b `printf \\\\%03o "$@"` ; }

You can pass a lot of different stuff, all that is supported by the integer conversion in the inner printf, which turns stuff into octals. This is needed because basically format b in the outer printf insists on getting octals in input.

There’s a slight nit-pick to address to writebytes actually, in that the inner printf does not actually spit out stuff that is adherent to the standard (at least according to this printf page):

“\0ddd”, where ddd is a zero, one, two, or three-digit octal number that shall be converted to a byte with the numeric value specified by the octal number

So, a more correct writebytes seems to be this, where each input integer is expanded to four characters, which is allowed and ensures that the first one is a 0 if we play it nice and feed only values up to 255 (decimal) in:

writebytes () { printf %b `printf \\\\%04o "$@"` ; }

As I went to try this out in the shell in my virtual machine… It didn’t! It turns out I was using a version of dash that suppresses the printing of NULs, which is something that has been solved in more recent version (at least the bug disappeared in version

So… you might be writing POSIXly correct stuff… but you might still have to fight bugs!