TL;DR

If you want to ssh to a host but that you can’t access directly, ProxyJump can be very, very handy to pass through an intermediate with little hassle.

Often times, I find myself in this situation:

  • I can connect to a test lab through ssh, usually to a specific host;
  • from that host, I can access other hosts inside the lab, that I cannot reach directly.

So, if I’m interested into connecting to a host inside, I still have to connect to the intermediate specific host first; we will call this intermediate host a jumphost and the situation is like this:

+--------+   +----------+   +--------+
| laptop |-->| jumphost |-->| target |
+--------+   +----------+   +--------+

This is usually not a tremendous hassle, but (for me, at least) it falls in that category of annoyances whose resolution is an annoyance of about the same energy level. All in all, I just ssh into the lab-pivot, then ssh to the target from there. It has to be said that using tmux helps a lot amortizing this double ssh process, because after the initial login I can open an indefinite number of subshells.

This is a bit suboptimal when I have to transfer files: they have to be transferred in the jumphost, then to the target. This might prove time consuming, as well as requiring some effort if the jumphost does not have too much available storage.

How old is ssh?

If you happen to have a version of OpenSSH that is release-7.3 or later, then enter ProxyJump. From the release note for 7.3:

[…] ProxyJump option and corresponding -J command-line flag to allow simplified indirection through a one or more SSH bastions or “jump hosts”.

Let’s see an example, supposing that…

  • you are user foo on laptop
  • you are user bar on jumphost, using key ~foo/.ssh/jumphost.key stored in laptop
  • you are user galook on target, using key ~foo/.ssh/target.key stored in laptop

This is the most complicated setup, but with a little help from ~foo/.ssh/config we will have no problem:

Host jumphost
   HostName jumphost.local
   User bar
   IdentityFile ~/.ssh/jumphost.key
Host target
   HostName target.internal
   User galook
   IdentityFile ~/.ssh/target.key
   ProxyJump jumphost

At this point, it’s as simple as:

foo@laptop$ ssh target

and voilà, we are logged into target.

One key to rule them all…

If you happen to use the same key for both bar@jumphost.local and galook@target.internal, it can be even simpler! Forget about ~foo/.ssh/config and just use option -J from the command line:

foo@laptop$ ssh -i ~/.ssh/oneforall.key \
   -J bar@jumphost.local galook@target.internal

In a nutshell, the -J option allows us to specify the intermediate jumphost to use, straight from the command line.

It’s even simpler if the key is also your default one (usually ~/.ssh/id_rsa):

foo@laptop$ ssh -J bar@jumphost.local galook@target.internal

… and yes, if you’re using the same username all over the place, then it becomes really really easy:

foo@laptop$ ssh -J jumphost.local target.internal

Summary

This was super-interesting to discover… thanks!!!